CD ONE
  1. Sinfonia

  2. Part One Comfort ye
    tenor
  3. Ev'ry Valley shall be exalted
    tenor
  4. And the glory of the Lord
    chorus
  5. Thus saith the Lord
    bass
  6. But who may abide the Day of his coming  
    bass
  7. And he shall purify the Sons of Levi 
    chorus
  8. Behold, a Virgin shall conceive…O thou that tellest good Tidings to Zion 
    alto
  9. For behold, Darkness shall cover the Earth 
    bass
  10. The People that walked in Darkness 
    bass
  11. For unto us a Child is born 
    chorus
  12. Pifa
    "Pastoral Symphony"
  13. There were Shepherds…And lo, the Angel of the Lord came upon them 
    soprano
  14. And the Angel said unto them…And suddenly there was with the Angel 
    soprano
  15. Glory to God
    chorus
  16. Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion 
    soprano
  17. Then shall the Eyes of the Blind be open’d…He shall feed his Flock
    soprano
  18. His Yoke is easy 
    chorus
  19. Part Two Behold the Lamb of God 
    chorus
  20. He was despised and rejected of Men 
    alto
  21. Surely he hath borne our Griefs and carried our Sorrows 
    chorus
  22. And with His Stripes we are healed 
    chorus
  23. All we, like Sheep, have gone astray 
    chorus
    CD TWO
    1. All they that see him laugh him to scorn 
      tenor

    2. He trusted in God 
      chorus
    3. Thy Rebuke hath broken his Heart 
      tenor
    4. Behold, and see 
      tenor
    5. He was cut off out of the Land of the Living 
      tenor
    6. But Thou didst not leave his Soul in Hell 
      tenor
    7. Lift up your Heads 
      chorus
    8. Unto which of the Angels said He at any time …Let all the Angels of God worship Him 
      tenor & chorus
    9. Thou art gone up on High 
      bass
    10. The Lord gave the Word 
      chorus
    11. How beautiful are the Feet 
      soprano
    12. Why do the Nations so furiously rage together 
      bass
    13. Let us break their Bonds asunder 
      chorus
    14. He that dwelleth in Heaven…Thou shalt break them with a Rod of Iron 
      tenor
    15. Hallelujah!
      chorus
    16. Part Three I know that my Redeemer liveth 
      soprano
    17. Since by Man came Death 
      chorus
    18. Behold, I tell you a Mystery 
      bass
    19. The trumpet shall sound 
      bass
    20. Then shall be brought to pass…O Death, where is thy Sting? 
      alto & tenor
    21. But Thanks be to God 
      chorus
    22. If God be for us 
      soprano
    23. Worthy is the Lamb…Amen 
      chorus

      Program Notes

      ON RECORDING MESSIAH "LIVE" — by Jeffrey Thomas

      I have always subscribed to the idea that a "live" recording of any work should be released only if its artistic standards can be compared favorably to a studio recorded version, and if the particular circumstances of the performance(s) merit special attention. In the autumn of 2002, the Robert and Margrit Mondavi Center for the Performing Arts opened on the campus of the University of California at Davis. It is a stunning facility, and ranks among the finest performing arts facilities in the world. The main performance space, Barbara K. and W. Turrentine Jackson Hall, is an 1,800-seat concert venue with acoustics that are a dream come true for both performers and audience members alike. Two consecutive performances there in December 2004 provided us with an extremely valuable opportunity to produce a live recording. One can certainly assume that there are indeed many recordings of Messiah available, so what will be especially distinctive about our reading and recording of it here?

      We can reconstruct any of nine known versions of the work: the autograph score of 1741; the first performance in Dublin in 1742; four performances at Covent Garden in 1743, 1745, 1749, and 1750; a performance at London's Foundling Hospital in 1759; Handel's conducting score; and a performance in Dublin in 1761. The particular dispositions and arrangements of arias and choruses are unique in each one. It is entirely possible to assemble a particular compilation of the various pieces of the work that was never heard by Handel, and—considering the work's mutability at the hands of its composer—it could hardly be judged wrong to do so. In fact, most performances heard today represent exactly such a hybrid version. And among recordings of the work in the last decade or two, one can find an ingenious set of compact discs that can be programmed (according to a guide included in the enclosed booklet) to play virtually any version of Messiah known to us; that is, all but one.

      It is the so-called autograph score version of 1741 that has remained practically unheard and that we have performed and recorded here. When Handel took his score to Dublin and began the rehearsal process, changes would be made even before the premiere. This is a fairly common practice when producing the first performance of an opera or a play: a composer's wishes are often subjected to the stark realization that the practical considerations of performance—available forces, abilities of the performers, etc.—might demand alterations. This was certainly the case for Handel, who was already a very experienced opera composer, and probably quite used to this process of last minute revisions. But what interests us the most, given our opportunity to choose a particular version, is the truly original concept of the work, before any revisions, alterations, or concessions to the initial performance environment.

      For example, here and there Handel deleted a few measures of music that add up to barely a minute or two. He composed them initially, and they even wound up in the first version of his conducting score (a neatly prepared volume that would serve for more than fifteen years), although in some cases their deletion is indicated by white strips of paper glued on top of the notes. We have restored these extra measures, which in some cases are barely noticeable (an extra two bars in "Ev'ry valley"), but in others constitute full da capo versions of the soprano aria, "Rejoice greatly," and the bass aria, "The trumpet shall sound," rather than the truncated dal segno versions that would later be indicated. In another case, you will hear a few measures of music that you almost certainly have never heard before (the opening of the bass recitative, "Thus saith the Lord"). Handel's first idea was later altered, showing us that he changed his mind. But the first version of those notes was complete and fully orchestrated, so we believe that it shows his original intentions. And in still other cases, you will hear versions of arias that were later substantially recomposed: the original bass version of "But who may abide" was later embellished with florid fioratura passagework to capitalize on the virtuoso capabilities of the Italian castrato Gaetano Guadagni, and the soprano aria, "How beautiful are the feet," is presented here in its original da capo form, including the text "Their sound is gone out," which was later transformed at least three times (into an arioso for tenor, a four-part chorus, and a duet for two altos).

      Handel was as skilled at revision and transcription as Johann Sebastian Bach. For Messiah he borrowed music from some of his Italian vocal duets for several of the choruses, and wrote as many rearrangements of the solo arias as can be imagined. Certainly, a composer is allowed to change his mind! There is a notion, however, that while Bach's revisions were probably always enhancements to his original music, Handel's revisions might have been little more than concessions to the forces he had available to him; more specifically, Handel often had to rework the arias in order to take advantage of the soloists he had at his disposal, and in the case of the premiere, he may have had to compensate for the soloists' inabilities or, in the worst cases, the lack of some proper soloists at all. In Dublin, a great amount of solo work was assigned to a soprano named Signora Avolio, one of the few professional musicians that were available to Handel on that occasion. He probably knew this would be the case in advance of the first performance, and his composing score indicates those considerably substantial original assignments to her. The remaining arias call less demandingly on an alto, tenor, and bass. At the time of the work's composition, Handel would have expected those soloists to be drawn from the ranks of the assembled choirs.

      Handel composed Messiah during the three weeks between August 22 and September 14, 1741, and premiered the work in April of the following year. Prior to 1732, he had composed only operatic works in Italian for the London theatres, but the ten years that followed would prove to be a period of experimentation and change. Perhaps spurred on by new competition with a rival opera company, in 1736 he turned to the composition of an English oratorio, a setting of John Dryden's ode for Saint Cecilia's Day titled Alexander's Feast; or the Power of Musique. The text of Alexander's Feast was brought to Handel's attention by Newburgh Hamilton, who would provide some much needed assistance to Handel with the intricacies of setting the English language to music. (Hamilton was later afforded a gift in the composer's will for helping to "adjust the words" of his English compositions.) Hamilton wrote that Handel had "with Pleasure undertaken the task" of setting Alexander's Feast. Indeed the experience was so successful and satisfying for Handel that, during the nine days between September 15 and 24 in 1739, he composed his setting of another of Dryden's odes, A Song for St. Cecilia's Day. This "Pleasure" that Handel had newly found in the composition of oratorios was something of an economic and spiritual windfall for the composer. The sad truth is that twenty years earlier, he had begun to suffer financial difficulties, and by the early 1730s his professional life was simply unraveling. He was nearly bankrupt, and had fallen very much out of the critical favor of the aristocratic public for whom he had composed his Italian operas. They were expensive to produce, and not accessible enough for his audience. But by the time he set his pen to paper in the autumn of 1741 to compose Messiah, things had taken a turn for the better.

      Charles Jennens by Thomas Hudson circa 1745

      It was a time of transition for the composer: he had already begun to explore the possibility of accepting an invitation for an extended stay in Dublin, but proceeded nonetheless to address his annual task of composing new works for his next London season. Messiah was really the idea of the librettist Charles Jennens (pictured left), who wrote in July of that year: "Handel says he will do nothing next Winter, but, I hope to persuade him to set another Scripture Collection I have made for him...I hope he will lay out his whole Genius and skill upon it, that the Composition may excel all his former Compositions, as the Subject excels every other Subject. The Subject is Messiah." 

      Handel scored Messiah for chorus, soloists and an orchestra of only strings, continuo, two trumpets, and timpani—a rather modest combination. There are strong indications that Handel had Dublin in mind while he composed the score, and therefore the relatively small forces required for Messiah are a reflection of what Handel expected would be available to him there. Additionally, he may have taken Jennen's recommendation that Messiah be used for a benefit performance, perhaps utilizing a smaller orchestra to economize on expenses. It was the custom, however, to have oboes double soprano voices, and bassoons double the continuo line. It seems reasonable to utilize these slightly fuller forces. Had the circumstances been more lavish, Handel certainly would have done so, and indeed might have done so, even though there is no evidence to prove it.

      In November, having ultimately accepted the invitation, Handel arrived in Dublin. He received a warm welcome, and performed his first concert there to a sold-out house. The first performance of Messiah took place on April 13, 1742, in the new music hall on Fishamble Street, and was a tremendous success. The review that appeared in Faulkner's Dublin Journal proclaimed: "Words are wanting to express the exquisite Delight it afforded to the admiring crowded Audience. The Sublime, the Grand, and the Tender, adapted to the most elevated, majestick and moving Words, conspired to transport and charm the ravished Heart and Ear." But the librettist did not agree. Jennens greatly valued his text, and a few years later wrote that Handel had "made a fine Entertainment of it, tho' not near so good as he might and ought to have done. I have with great difficulty made him correct some of the grossest faults in the composition, but he retained his overture obstinately in which there are some passages far unworthy of Handel but much more unworthy of the Messiah." Messiah had blurred the distinctions between opera, oratorio, passion, and cantata, and perhaps Jennens found this to be a fundamental fault.

      Over the course of the first few performances of the work, Handel had chosen among his soloists the actress Mrs. Susannah Cibber, who had previously suffered greatly under the clouds of scandal, and a popular comic actress named Kitty Clive. In fact, the performance history of Messiah under the composer's direction is a wildly varied one, to say the least. The first performance in Dublin utilized only two singers of any real distinction, two Dublin cathedral choirs (from which were drawn the male voice solos), and the rather meager orchestra, as mentioned above. By a few years later, however, the orchestra had grown considerably, augmented by oboes, bassoons, and horns. The number of vocal soloists also increased, and by 1750 the famous castrato Guadagni was among them. Its various performance venues included the Dublin Cathedral, Covent Garden, and London's Foundling Hospital.

      Like any great work, Messiah is indestructible, even when subjected to the most unorthodox or unflattering performance schemes. It has survived all sorts of mistreatment, but always shines brightest when graced by historically informed performance practices. It is especially then that the true splendor of Handel's sublime eloquence triumphs. In this performance, we welcomed occasional embellishments and ornamentation by the singers. And we added horns to the tutti sonority, not because we think Handel utilized them in Dublin (although we know that he used them later in London), but because horns doubling trumpets was a more or less common practice, and only enhances the celebratory nature of the two great choruses, "Hallelujah" and "Worthy is the Lamb." There are inevitable compromises in terms of extraneous noises when producing a live recording, but we are most thankful to the members of our audiences on those two evenings, who proved that even a throng of patrons can be as quiet as church mice.

      Finally, recordings—whether "live" or produced in a studio—can provide opportunities that are essentially lacking in a concert performance. We were able to recreate an aspect of historically informed performance practice that is otherwise quite impractical: until the middle of the nineteenth century, and even beyond, choruses were quite often placed in front of their accompanying orchestras. The rhetorical expression of text was a driving force of the Baroque period and is, indeed, one of the primary goals of all of our performances. In Messiah, the chorus, in addition to the soloists, carries the dramatic action of the libretto, and placing them in the foreground of the listener's experience gives their orations the prominence that they deserve.

      While Messiah is certainly considered by any audience to be a "Grand Musical Entertainment"—as it was sometimes called in Handel's day—the composer is purported to have said, "I should be sorry if I only entertained them; I wished to make them better."

      — © Jeffrey Thomas

      Libretto

      [CD ONE]

      PART THE FIRST 

      SINFONY 

      Scene I 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Tenor – Comfort ye, comfort ye my People, saith your God; speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her Warfare is accomplish’d, that her Iniquity is pardon’d. The Voice of him that crieth in the Wilderness, prepare ye the Way of the Lord, make straight in the Desert a Highway for our God. (Isaiah 40:1–3) 

      SONG – Tenor – Ev’ry Valley shall be exalted, and ev’ry Mountain and Hill made low, the Crooked straight, and the rough Places plain. (Isaiah 40:4)

      CHORUS – And the Glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all Flesh shall see it together; for the Mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah 40:5) 

      Scene II 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Bass – Thus saith the Lord of Hosts; Yet once a little while, and I will shake the Heav’ns and the Earth; the Sea and the dry Land: And I will shake all Nations; and the Desire of all Nations shall come. (Haggai 2:6–7) The Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to his Temple, ev’n the Messenger of the Covenant, whom ye de-light in: Behold He shall come, saith the Lord of Hosts. (Malachi 3:1) 

      SONG – Bass – But who may abide the Day of his coming? And who shall stand when He appeareth? For He is like a Refiner’s Fire. (Malachi 3:2) 

      CHORUS – And he shall purify the Sons of Levi, that they may offer unto the Lord an Offering in Righteousness. (Malachi 3:3) 

      Scene III 

      RECITATIVE – Countertenor – Behold, a Virgin shall conceive, and bear a Son, and shall call his Name Emmanuel, GOD WITH US. (Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:23) 

      SONG – Countertenor & CHORUS – O thou that tellest good Tidings to Zion, get thee up into the high Mountain: O thou that tellest good Tidings to Jerusalem, lift up thy Voice with Strength; lift it up, be not afraid: Say unto the Cities of Judah, Behold your God. O thou that tellest good Tidings to Zion, Arise, shine, for thy Light is come, and the Glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. (Isaiah 40:9; Isaiah 60:1) 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Bass – For behold, Darkness shall cover the Earth, and gross Darkness the People: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his Glory shall be seen upon thee. And the Gentiles shall come to thy Light, and Kings to the Brightness of thy Rising. (Isaiah 60:2–3) 

      SONG – Bass – The People that walked in Darkness have seen a great Light; And they that dwell in the Land of the Shadow of Death, upon them hath the Light shined. (Isaiah 9:2) 

      CHORUS – For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the Government shall be upon his Shoulder; and His Name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God, The Everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. (Isaiah 9:6) 

      Scene IV 

      PIFA 

      RECITATIVE – Soprano – There were Shepherds abiding in the Field, keeping Watch over their Flock by Night. (Luke 2:8) 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Soprano – And lo, the Angel of the Lord came upon them, and the Glory of the Lord shone round about them, and they were sore afraid. (Luke 2:9) 

      RECITATIVE – Soprano – And the Angel said unto them, Fear not; for behold, I bring you good Tidings of great Joy, which shall be to all People. For unto you is born this Day, in the City of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. (Luke 2:10–11) 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Soprano – And suddenly there was with the Angel a Multitude of the heav’nly Host, prais-ing God, and saying... (Luke 2:13) 

      CHORUS – Glory to God in the Highest, and Peace on Earth, Good Will towards Men. (Luke 2:14) 

      Scene V 

      SONG – Soprano – Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Sion, shout, O Daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy King cometh unto thee: He is the righteous Saviour; and He shall speak Peace unto the Heathen. (Zechariah 9:9–10) 

      RECITATIVE – Soprano – Then shall the Eyes of the Blind be open’d, and the Ears of the Deaf unstopped; then shall the lame Man leap as an Hart, and the Tongue of the Dumb shall sing. (Zechariah 35:5–6) 

      SONG – Soprano – He shall feed his Flock like a shepherd: and He shall gather the Lambs with his Arm, and carry them in his Bosom, and gently lead those that are with young. Come unto Him all ye that labour, come unto Him all ye that are heavy laden, and He will give you Rest. Take his Yoke upon you and learn of Him; for He is meek and lowly of Heart: and ye shall find Rest unto your souls. (Isaiah 40:11; Matthew 11:28–29) 

      CHORUS – His Yoke is easy, his Burthen is light. (Matthew 11:30) 

      PART THE SECOND 

      Scene I 

      CHORUS – Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the Sin of the World. (John 1:29) 

      SONG – Countertenor – He was despised and rejected of Men, a Man of Sorrows, and acquainted with Grief. He gave his Back to the Smiters, and his Cheeks to them that plucked off the Hair: He hid not his Face from Shame and Spitting. (Isaiah 53:3; Isaiah 50:6) 

      CHORUS – Surely he hath borne our Griefs and carried our Sorrows: He was wounded for our Transgressions, He was bruised for our Iniquities; the Chastisement of our Peace was upon Him. (Isaiah 53:4–5) 

      CHORUS – And with His Stripes we are healed. (Isaiah 53:5) 

      CHORUS – All we, like Sheep, have gone astray, we have turned ev’ry one to his own Way, and the Lord hath laid on Him the Iniquity of us all. (Isaiah 53:6) 

      [CD TWO] 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Tenor – All they that see him laugh him to scorn; they shoot out their Lips, and shake their Heads, saying... (Psalm 22:7) 

      CHORUS – He trusted in God, that he would deliver him: let him deliver him, if he delight in him. (Psalm 22:8) 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Tenor – Thy Rebuke hath broken his Heart; He is full of Heaviness: He looked for some to have Pity on him, but there was no Man, neither found he any to comfort him. (Psalm 69:21) 

      SONG – Tenor – Behold, and see, if there be any Sorrow like unto his Sorrow! (Lamentations 1:12) 

      Scene II 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Tenor – He was cut off out of the Land of the Living: For the Transgression of thy People was He stricken. (Isaiah 53:8) 

      SONG – Tenor – But Thou didst not leave his Soul in Hell, nor didst Thou suffer thy Holy One to see Corruption. (Psalm 16:10) 

      Scene III 

      SEMICHORUS – Lift up your Heads, O ye Gates, and be ye lift up, ye everlasting Doors, and the King of Glory shall come in. Who is this King of Glory? The Lord Strong and Mighty; the Lord Mighty in Battle. Lift up your Heads, O ye Gates, and be ye lift up, ye everlasting Doors, and the King of Glory shall come in. Who is this King of Glory? The Lord of Hosts: he is the King of Glory. (Psalm 24:7–10) 

      Scene IV 

      RECITATIVE – Tenor – Unto which of the Angels said He at any time, Thou art my Son, this Day have I begotten thee? (Hebrews 1:5) 

      CHORUS – Let all the Angels of God worship Him. (Hebrews 1:6) 

      Scene V 

      SONG – Bass – Thou art gone up on High; Thou has led Captivity captive, and received Gifts for Men, yea, even for thine Enemies, that the Lord God might dwell among them. (Psalm 68:18) 

      CHORUS – The Lord gave the Word: Great was the Company of the Preachers. (Psalm 68:11) 

      SONG – Soprano – How beautiful are the Feet of them that preach the Gospel of Peace, and bring glad Tidings of good Things. Their Sound is gone out into all Lands, and their Words unto the Ends of the World. (Romans 10:15 and 18) 

      Scene VI 

      SONG – Bass – Why do the Nations so furiously rage together? and why do the People imagine a vain Thing? The Kings of the Earth rise up, and the Rulers take Counsel together against the Lord and against his Anointed. (Psalm 2:1–2) 

      CHORUS – Let us break their Bonds asunder, and cast away their Yokes from us. (Psalm 2:3) 

      Scene VII 

      RECITATIVE – Tenor – He that dwelleth in Heaven shall laugh them to scorn; the Lord shall have them in Derision. (Psalm 2:4) 

      SONG – Tenor – Thou shalt break them with a Rod of Iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a Potter’s Vessel. (Psalm 2:9) 

      CHORUS – Hallelujah! for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth. The Kingdom of this World is become the Kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ; and He shall reign for ever and ever, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. Hallelujah! (Rev-elation 19:6; 11:15; 19:16) 

      PART THE THIRD

      Scene I 

      SONG – Soprano – I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He shall stand at the latter Day upon the Earth: And tho’ Worms destroy this Body, yet in my Flesh shall I see God. For now is Christ risen from the Dead, the First–Fruits of them that sleep. (Job 19:25–26; 1 Corinthians 15:20) 

      CHORUS – Since by Man came Death, by Man came also the Resurrection of the Dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. (1 Corinthians 15:21–22) 

      Scene II 

      RECITATIVE, accompanied – Bass – Behold, I tell you a Mystery: We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be chang’d, in a Moment, in the Twinkling of an Eye, at the last Trumpet. (1 Corinthians 15:51–52) 

      SONG – Bass – The trumpet shall sound, and the Dead shall be rais’d incorruptible, and We shall be chang’d. For this corruptible must put on Incorruption, and this Mortal must put on Immortality. (1 Corinthians 15:52–54) 

      Scene III 

      RECITATIVE – Countertenor – Then shall be brought to pass the Saying that is written; Death is swallow’d up in Vic-tory. (1 Corinthians 15:54) 

      DUETTO – Countertenor and Tenor – O Death, where is thy Sting? O Grave, where is thy Victory? The Sting of Death is Sin, and the Strength of Sin is the Law. (1 Corinthians 15:55–56) 

      CHORUS – But Thanks be to God, who giveth Us the Victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. (1 Corinthians 15:57) 

      SONG – Soprano – If God be for us, who can be against us? Who shall lay anything to the Charge of God’s Elect? It is God that justifieth; Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea, rather that is risen again; who is at the Right Hand of God, who maketh intercession for us. (Romans 8:31 and 33–34) 

      Scene IV 

      CHORUS – Worthy is the Lamb that was slain, and hath redeemed us to God by His Blood, to receive Power, and Riches, and Wisdom, and Strength, and Honour, and Glory, and Blessing. Blessing and Honour, Glory and Pow’r be unto Him that sitteth upon the Throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever. (Revelation 5:12–14) 

      CHORUS – Amen. 

      The Musicians

      AMERICAN BACH SOLOISTS 
      performing on period instruments
      Jeffrey Thomas, conductor

      Violin

      Elizabeth Blumenstock (leader)
      Cynthia Albers
      Katherine Button
      Tekla Cunningham
      Andrew Fouts
      Cynthia Miller Freivogel
      Lisa Grodin
      Rachel Hurwitz
      Katherine Kyme
      Bettina Mussumeli
      Maxine Nemerovski
      Lisa Weiss
      David Wilson
      Sara Usher

      Viola

      David Daniel Bowes
      Maria Caswell
      Daria D’Andrea
      Anthony Martin

      Violoncello

      William Skeen (continuo)
      Joanna Blendulf
      Paul Hale
      David Morris

      Contrabass

      Steven Lehning (continuo)
      Christopher Deppe
      Kristin Zoernig

      Organ

      Corey Jamason (continuo)

      Harpsichord

      Michael Sponseller (continuo)

      Trumpet

      John Thiessen (solo)
      Stephen Escher

      Horn

      Paul Avril
      Peter Nowlen

      Timpani

      Kent Reed

      Oboe

      John Abberger
      Michael Dupree

      Bassoon

      Charles Koster
      Kate van Orden
      VOCAL SOLOISTS

      Arianna Zukerman, soprano
      Daniel Taylor, countertenor
      Steven Tharp, tenor
      William Sharp, baritone 

      AMERICAN BACH  CHOIR

      Soprano

      Jennifer Brody
      Michelle Clair
      Christine Earl
      Elisabeth Engan
      Andrea Fullington
      Susan Judy
      Cheryl Sumsion
      Allison Zelles Lloyd

      Alto

      Elisabeth Eliassen
      Alexandra Ivanoff
      Linda Liebschutz
      Katherine E. McKee
      Jason Snyder
      Amelia Triest
      Delia Voitoff-Bauman
      Suzanne Elder Wallace

      Tenor

      Edward Betts
      Corey Head
      Andrew Morgan
      Mark Mueller
      Colby Roberts
      John Rouse
      Gary Ruschman

      Bass

      John Kendall Bailey
      Jeffrey Fields
      Thomas Hart
      Raymond Martinez
      James Monios
      Chad Runyon
      Mark Sumner
      David Varnum

      Additional Information

      Recorded in performance on December 17 and 18, 2004, in Barbara K. and W. Turrentine Jackson Hall in the Robert and Margrit Mondavi Center for the Performing Arts on the campus of the University of California, Davis.

      Producer and Digital Mixing: Jeffrey Thomas

      Editing: Jeffrey Thomas and Steven Lehning

      Recording Engineers: John La Grou and Hans Apel

      Production Assistants: Philip Daley, David Amrein, Eric Ruud


      © Copyright 2019 American Bach Soloists - All Rights Reserved